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TV & SAT TV

Some Theory

DIPOL for education - SMATV and CCTV systems
This article is dedicated to teachers and students of technical schools with electronics courses. It contains a set of materials that can be used in the implementation of a training program for SMATV and CCTV technologies.
The article has been divided into three parts:
Part 1Proposals for school laboratories
Presentation of specific hardware solutions allowing for the examination of the necessary knowledge and skills for future installers.
Part 2Designing SMATV systems with SatNet - an application for technical schools
We propose the use of the software in schools for teaching how to design multiswitch systems being a popular SMATV solution in multi-family buildings.
Part 3A knowledge base
Links to articles on telecommunication installations (updated on a continuous basis).
Implementation of the curriculum in one of Krakow's vocational secondary school. The students practice skills needed for installers, using products from our offer - coaxial cables, screed-on and compression connectors, crimping tools, subscriber outlets, splitters, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and many other items.
Proposals for school laboratories
The figures below show the proposed solutions for laboratory workstations focused on the key issues related to installing TV, SAT TV and CCTV systems. We took into account possibly low cost of the equipment, but with the ability to practice and verify key installation issues. Each of the schemes is provided with a list of problems that should be solved by every installer. The answers to most of the questions can be found in the Knowledge Base listed at the end of the article. There is, of course, the possibility of combining the solutions, as well as enriching them with additional verification elements testing in a very detailed manner the knowledge of future installers. If you have any questions - please contact us - we are ready to assist in the development of other or more complex solutions. We will use our expertise to solve any problems in this field.
Exercise and examination system - television
Steel Satellite Dish: TRIAX 115 TD (dark gray)QUATRO LNB: Inverto BLACK Ultra 0.2dBQUATRO LNB: Inverto BLACK Ultra 0.2dBSteel Satellite Dish: FAMAVAL 110 LH (110cm)QUAD LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3 dBQUAD LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3 dBUHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri Digit75-ohm terminating resistor in F plug8-Way Splitter R-8 SignalDiSEqC 2.0 Switch: Signal 2x1 DS-7021 DiSEqC 2.0 Switch: Signal 2x1 DS-7021 DiSEqC 2.0 Switch: Signal 2x1 DS-7021 DiSEqC 2.0 Switch: Signal 2x1 DS-7021 Amplifier for 9-input Multiswitches: Terra SA-91L (class A)Coaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 PE (gel-filled) [1m]Coaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]9/8 Multiswitch: TERRA MV-908L (active terr. path, class A, w/o PSU)TV/SAT Tap: Terra SD-920 (9-in, 18-out, 20dB, class A)TV/SAT Tap: Terra SD-920 (9-in, 18-out, 20dB, class A)TV/SAT Tap: Terra SD-915 (9-in, 18-out, 15dB, class A)TV/SAT Tap: Terra SD-915 (9-in, 18-out, 15dB, class A)TV/SAT Tap: Terra SD-910 (9-in, 18-out, 10dB, class A)TV/SAT Splitter: Terra SD-904 (9-in, 18-out, class A)

The system enables access to full package of TV signals on up to 7 laboratory workstations (stands) that can be used for exercise and examination purposes. The master antenna includes: A9646 satellite dish with a diameter of 115 cm with two A98266 quatro LNBs, A9658 satellite dish with a diameter of 110 cm and two A98253 quad LNBs, and UHF antenna for reception of DVB-T broadcasts. The outdoor cabling is made of TRISET-113 PE E1017 coaxial cable, the indoor network uses TRISET-113 PVC E1015 cable. The former satellite antenna provides to each stand signals from two satellites, with division into different polarizations and bands. The signals from the quarto LNBs enter the Terra SA-901 R70901 amplifier and are then distributed to the stands with the use of SS-xx taps. At any stand the user can connect a multiswitch (e.g. MSV-908 R70858).
The latter part of the satellite installation provides signals to the first 4 stands, also from two satellites, but only via single cables (full band and both polarizations). It uses A98253 quad LNBs and R852510 DiSEqC switches. For a greater number of stands, it would be necessary to use an octo LNB (8 outputs - e.g. A98258) or employ a multiswitch.
The third part of the system supplies all stands with signals of digital terrestrial television (DVB-T). The signals from the A2670 antenna are distributed to each stand via the Signal R-8 R60108 8-way splitter. The unused output of the splitter is closed by the R66200 terminating resistor. Depending on the signal levels in the area and the length of the cables, the terrestrial path may require the application of an TV amplifier, which can also be a part of the training.
Laboratory workstation no. 1
UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitCoaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 PE (gel-filled) [1m]4-way TV / FM Splitter - Signal R-4VHF/UHF Amplifier - Terra HS-013 (1xIN/2xOUT, 12V)Coaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVDVB-T Signal Meter: Digiair PRO
Fig. 1 - Reception of DVB-T broadcasts - the influence of amplifiers and passive components on the level and quality of digital signals

Figure 1 shows a typical antenna receiving system for terrestrial digital television (DVB-T). The Dipol TriDigit A2670 antenna is connected via Triset-113 PE E1017 cable for outdoor applications with Signal R694130 terminal outlet. The optional components include the Terra HS-013 R82010 subscriber amplifier and Signal R-4 R60104 splitter. The output signals are measured with the R10510 meter connected to the subscriber outlet with Triset-113 E1015 cable.
What every installer should be able to:
  • choose the place and mounting method for DVB-T antenna
  • install subscriber outlet
  • search for and determine available DVB-T multiplexes
  • remember the channel lists of the multiplexes
  • measure BER, MER, signal levels in dBμV and determine their influence on the reception quality
  • learn about the influence of active components (amplifier) on these parameters
  • determine the influence of passive components (splitter, subscriber outlet) upon these parameters
  • connect and configure popular DVB-T receiver
Laboratory workstation no. 2
UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitCoaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 PE (gel-filled) [1m]Programmable Multiband Amplifier: Telmor WWK-9518-way Tap: Signal O-8 (5-1000 MHz)75-ohm terminating resistor in F plugSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal RTVDVB-T Signal Meter: Digiair PROCoaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]
Fig. 2 - Reception of DVB-T broadcasts - setup and testing of channel amplifiers

Channel amplifiers are currently the basic components of the majority of (S)MATV systems. It is highly important for each installer to know the operation principle and advantages compared with broadband amplifiers. The installation shown in Fig. 2 is based on popular channel amplifier Telmor WWK-951 R89861.
What every installer should be able to:
  • know the operation principles and setup procedures of typical channel amplifiers
  • explain the concept of selectivity as one of the primary criteria for selecting a channel amplifier
  • measure the parameters of the signals, especially the impact of the built-in filters onto the unwanted ones
Laboratory workstation no. 3
Twin Monoblock LNB: INVERTO BLACK PRO (0.2 dB)Coaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 PE (gel-filled) [1m]Coaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]DVB-T Signal Meter: Digiair PROSteel Satellite Dish: TRIAX 80 TD (light gray)Digital Satellite Meter Satlook Micro HD (DVB-S/S2)Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SAT
Fig. 3 - Individual reception of SAT TV

Figure 3 presents a basic installation for individual reception of satellites broadcasts with two single SAT receivers or one twin tuner PVR receiver. The receiving set consists of 80 cm Triax TD 80 A9641 dish and Monoblock TWIN LNB A98254 allowing for reception broadcasts from two satellite positions, Hotbird 13.0E and Astra 19.2E. The LNB is connected with the Signal R694100 outlet via the Triset-113 PE E1017 cable. The output signals are measured with the Emitor Micro HD R10740 meter.
What every installer should be able to:
  • mount and align the satellite dish and the LNB
  • know control signals used in satellite TV receiving systems: LNB supply voltage level, 22 kHz, DiSEqC
  • identify:
    • satellites with the use of satellite meter
    • selected transponders
  • measure BER, MER, signal levels in dBμV and determine their influence on the reception quality
  • search available websites (e.g. lyngsat.com, linowsat.de, kingofsat.net) for the lists of transponders and channels
  • perform a complete installation of a typical satellite receiver
Laboratory workstation no. 4
UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitUniversal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dBUniversal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dB9/4 Multiswitch: Signal MP-0904L (active terrestrial TV)DVB-T Signal Meter: Digiair PROCoaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]Digital Satellite Meter Satlook Micro HD (DVB-S/S2)Steel Satellite Dish: TRIAX 100 TD (light gray)Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SAT
Fig. 4 - Basic SMATV system

Figure 4 shows a multiswitch system distributing DVB-T channels and satellite broadcasts from two satellite positions to 4 subscriber outlets. The SAT receiving set consists of 100 cm Triax 100 TD A9644 dish and two quatro LNBs A98257, connected with eight Triset-113 PE cables with Signal MP-0904L R6944504 multiswitch. The combined satellite and terrestrial signals (the former from the A2670 DVB-T antenna) are available in the subscriber outlets. The ability to make such a system and the knowledge of the principles of its operation will allow for the implementation of advanced television systems in detached houses, as well as the basis for the design and implementation of larger multiswitch systems in multi-dwelling units.
What every installer should be able to:
  • know the types and applications of LNBs
  • identify outputs of quatro LNBs and inputs of multiswitches
  • connect subscriber outlets, know the issue of signal filtration
  • diagnose problems and find solutions in the case of:
    • no signal at the multiswitch output despite adequate input signal
    • no signal from some band or polarization
    • no signal from one satellite (in the receiver)
Laboratory workstation no. 5
HD-TVI TURBO HD 3.0 Camera: Hikvision DS-2CE16D7T-IT3Z (compact, 1080p, 2.8-12mm motozoom, 0.01 lx, IR up to 40m)HD-TVI TURBO HD Camera Hikvision DS-2CE16D1T-VFIR3 (compact, 1080p, 2.8-12mm, 0.01 lx, IR up 40m)HD-TVI TURBO HD Camera Hikvision DS-2CE56D1T-IRM (ceiling, 1080p, 2.8mm, 0.01 lx, IR up 20m)HD-TVI TURBO HD 3.0 Camera: Hikvision DS-2CE56D7T-IT3Z (ceiling, 1080p, 2.8-12 mm motozoom, 0.01 lx, IR up to 40m)Power Supply Distributor LZ-6CCTV Cable: CAMSET/YAR 75-0.59/3.7+2*0.50 (2 power wires up to 230VAC) [100m]CCTV Video Surge Protector OPV-4SMPS AC/DC Adapter 12VDC/5A (2.1/5.5 (+), for CCTV cameras)HD-TVI TURBO HD 3.0 DVR: Hikvision DS-7204HQHI-F1/N/A (4ch, 1080p@12fps, H.264, HDMI, VGA) High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet (v1.4, 2m, 28AWG)
Fig. 5 - Analog CCTV system with 4 cameras

Figure 5 presents the diagram of a simple video surveillance system, with one DVR and 4 analog security cameras. The M7517 ceiling camera and three compact cameras with different parameters ( M7577, M7508 and M7574 ) are connected to the popular 4-channel DVR Hikvision M75205, with the use of typical CCTV cable Camset/YAR M5995. The cable transmits the baseband video signals (via its RG59 component) and supplies power to cameras (via two 0.5 mm power wires). The power is distributed from the M1825 power supply unit via power supply distributor M1802. Good practice requires protection of low-current systems against overvoltages. The function is performed by the Video Surge Protector OPV-4 M17014.
It is worth mentioning that modern CCTV DVRs make use of smartphones. The users can remotely configure the DVRs and view images from the cameras.
What every installer should be able to:
  • know the differences between different types of analog cameras
  • select the appropriate camera type to working conditions
  • adjust the camera parameters for optimum imaging
  • make use of cameras with IR illuminators for low-light and night operation
  • design power circuits for analog CCTV cameras
  • select a suitable DVR and configure it appropriately to the needs
  • calculate the necessary disk space depending on the recording parameters
  • remotely configure DVRs, using available applications for Windows systems and smartphones
Laboratory workstation no. 6
TV Modulator TERRA MT-412-Way TV/FM Splitter: Signal R-22-Way TV/FM Splitter: Signal R-2UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitVHF/UHF Amplifier - Terra HS-013 (1xIN/2xOUT, 12V)Universal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dBUniversal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dBCoaxial Cable (75 ohm, class A): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]Digital Satellite Meter Satlook Micro HD (DVB-S/S2)DVB-T Signal Meter: Digiair PROSteel Satellite Dish: TRIAX 100 TD (light gray)Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SAT9/8 Multiswitch: Signal MP-0908L (active terrestrial TV)HD-TVI Compact Camera N-CAM 760 (1080p, 2.8-12mm, 0.01 lx, IR up to 40m; CVBS, AHD, HD-CVI)HDMI - COFDM (DVB-T) Modulator: WS-7992 (2 channels)
Fig. 6 - Multipurpose SMATV system with security cameras (DVB-T+SAT+CCTV)

The system shown in Fig. 6 allows for the reception and distribution of terrestrial TV (DVB-T) and SAT broadcasts from two satellites to 8 subscriber outlets. Additionally, the system integrates video surveillance functionality that has been implemented with the use of TV modulators and analog CCTV cameras. The students can test the application of analog modulator Terra MT-41 R871741 and digital DVB-T encoder-modulator R86702, which are connected to CVBS outputs of the HD-TVI cameras.
What every installer should be able to:
  • classify TV modulators due to the type of the output signal
  • distinguish the spectrum of analog PAL and digital DVB-T (COFDM) signals
  • know the rules for determining the optimum output levels of selected active components of RF distribution systems (amplifiers, modulators)
Laboratory workstation no. 7
SIGNAL 19Patch Panel (1U, 24x cat.6 ports, cable holder)Web Smart Switch: TP-LINK T1600G-28TS (TL-SG2424) 24xGE 4xSFP RACKRouterBoard RB2011UAS-RM (600MHz 128MB, 5x1000Mbps, 5x100Mbps, SFP, LCD)Shelf for 19Access Point 802.11n: TP-Link TL-WR841N(300Mbps, built-in router and 4-port switch)
Fig. 7 - The network equipment for an office, placed in a RACK cabinet

The figure 7 shows the network equipment placed in a RACK cabinet, used for the deployment of a wired computer network for 24 hosts. The main router of the network is e.g. the TP-LINK TL-WR841N N3250 (with optional Wi-Fi connectivity), or more advanced RouterBoard RB2011UAS-RM N242011. The physical connections with the computers are made via the R9120319 patch panel. The entire network uses Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-T standard.
What every installer should be able to:
  • Select the suitable router and switch
  • Mount the network devices in a RACK cabinet
  • Install RJ-45 connectors
  • Physically connect the network devices
  • Configure the network
  • Diagnose network failures
Fiber optic systems in practice
An example of the laboratory stand – fusion splicing of optical fibers
Version 1 – purpose of the exercise: fiber splicing and protecting
Equipment and accessories:

1. Fusion splicer EasySplicer L5810 (with 250um stripper and cleaver)
2. Universal fiber optic stripper (250/900um) L5905
3. Scissors for cutting Kevlar(R) L5904
4. Fiber stripper for flat cables L5906
5. Dust-free Kim-Wipes 280 pcs. L5913
6. IPA solvent cleaner L5915
7. Heat-shrinkable protective tube L5554 (200 pcs.)
8. Fiber scraps trash can L5918
Single-mode cable L7104 (4x G.657A2 fibers)
Multimode cable L7208 (8x multimode fiber)
Exercise description:
  • pulling out the respective lengths of fibers
  • preparation of fiber ends (stripping, cleaning, cleaving)
  • fiber splicing
  • protection with heat-shrinkable sleeves
Version 2 – purpose of the exercise: splicing fibers with pigtails, protection of splices, installation in an 1U RACK fiber optic box
Equipment and accessories:

1. Fusion splicer EasySplicer L5810 (with 250um stripper and cleaver)
2. Universal fiber optic stripper (250/900um) L5905
3. Scissors for cutting Kevlar(R) L5904
4. Fiber stripper for flat cables L5906
5. Dust-free Kim-Wipes 280 pcs. L5913
6. IPA solvent cleaner L5915
7. Heat-shrinkable protective tube L5554 (200 pcs.)
8. Fiber scraps trash can L5918
9. RACK cabinet 6U R912018
10. Fiber optic box L5124 (with tray) L5541
11. SC/PC L4211 adapter (24 pcs.)
12. SC/PC simplex pigtail (1 meter) L3551 (100 pcs.)
13. Cable tie E951032 (100 pcs.)
Single-mode cable L7104 (4x G.657A2 fibers)
Multimode cable L7208 (8x multimode fiber)
Single-mode cable L76012 (12x single-mode fiber)
Exercise description:
  • preparing the cable end
  • inserting the cable to the box
  • preparation of fiber ends (stripping, cleaning, cleaving)
  • splicing the fibers with pigtails
  • protection of the splices with heat-shrinkable sleeves
  • placing the spare lengths of the fibers on the tray
  • plugging in the pigtails into adapters on the front panel
Version 3 – implementation of fiber connection between two active devices (2 fusion splices), testing the link
Equipment and accessories:

1. Fusion splicer EasySplicer L5810 (with 250um stripper and cleaver)
2. Universal fiber optic stripper (250/900um) L5905
3. Scissors for cutting Kevlar(R) L5904
4. Fiber stripper for flat cables L5906
5. Dust-free Kim-Wipes 280 pcs. L5913
6. IPA solvent cleaner L5915
7. Heat-shrinkable protective tube L5554 (200 pcs.)
8. Fiber scraps trash can L5918
9. SC/PC simplex pigtail (1 meter) L3551 (100 pcs.)
10. Ethernet media converter (set) L11525
11. 5 dB SC/APC optical attenuator L4515 (2 pcs.)

Single-mode cable L7104 (4x G.657A2 fibers)
Exercise description:
  • preparing the cable end
  • preparation of fiber ends (stripping, cleaning, cleaving)
  • splicing the fibers with pigtails
  • protection of the splices with heat-shrinkable sleeves
  • plugging in the pigtails into media converters
  • testing the link - Ethernet connection between any two network devices
Designing SMATV systems
SatNet - free software for technical schools
All electronics schools can use in the teaching process a simple but very functional SatNet application, an ideal tool for designing SMATV systems. The freeware program can be installed in any school on unlimited number of computers.
SatNet software from TERRA is used to design multiswitch systems based on the equipment manufactured by the company. The program provides the design in graphical form, determines signal levels in all outlets and verifies if they are compliant with standards.
By clicking on the picture below, you can switch to the article describing in detail the functionality of the application and the components of multiswitch systems. There is a number of practical examples there, as well. Thanks to a user-friendly interface, the application can be easily controlled by novice users, at the same time providing advanced tools for professional designers and installation companies.

The SatNet app
  • is a completely free application for designing a Terra multiswitch system of any size
  • is used by many design offices and installation companies throughout the world
  • fully reflects the actual parameters of the devices used
  • performs fast attenuation balance of transmission paths over the entire frequency spectrum of the signals
  • can define multiple types of transmission cables
  • provides a simple cost estimate for the designed system
  • has features that automate the design process and selection of system components
Click on the picture below to switch to the article on the application with the SatNet downloading option.
Designing SMATV systems with SatNet software from TERRA
Knowledge Base
Below there is a list of articles on TV/SAT and CCTV systems, concerning both theoretical and practical issues. We strive to create articles that are always up to date. DIPOL Library contains this set and many other items.
DVB-T antenna systems
Satellite DVB-S/S2 systems
Some theory and tables
Analog CCTV systems
IP CCTV systems
All interested schools should contact the person responsible for the "DIPOL for education..." project at this email address, or the following phone number: +48 12 686 02 11 ext. 38 (landline). You can benefit from our experience and purchase the necessary equipment.
The participants of this project can buy the offered equipment at special prices!