Digitization of terrestrial TV – DVB-T/DVB-T2

DVB project
At the end of the nineties, a decision was made about the digitization of terrestrial TV in Europe. It was decided that digital terrestrial TV would be broadcast in accordance with DVB coding and modulation schemes.
Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB), established in September 1993, is a consortium gathering over 200 broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software providers and regulatory bodies in over 30 countries, established to develop open standards for delivering digital television, multimedia and data services. The main task of the DVB organization was to"develop and agree specifications which are then passed to the European standards body for media systems, the EBU/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Technical Committee, for approval. The specifications are then formally standardized by either CENELEC or, in the majority of cases, ETSI" (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). The standards include satellite TV ( DVB-S and DVB-S2), cable TV (DVB-C) and terrestrial TV (DVB-T and DVB-T2, generally called DTT - digital terrestrial television).
Poland has adopted DVB-T MPEG-4 (H.264) as the main digital terrestrial television (DTT) standard. However, the final standard in Europe is to be DVB-T2 MPEG-4 (H.264). The first country in Europe that began official emissions in DVB-T2 was the United Kingdom, seven years ago. Since that time there has been a number of European countries which use the most modern system of terrestrial television: Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Ukraine. Less or more advanced tests are conducted in the following 8 countries: Belarus, Estonia, France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland. In Poland, the change from DVB-T to DVB-T2 is expected to take place by June 30, 2022.
Digital terrestrial television (DTT) in the world
(countries that have implemented or adopted DVB-T/ DVB-T2 systems are in blue
What are the benefits of digital terrestrial television?
Among the many advantages of the new system, DVB-T2 standard is characterized by better bandwidth utilization (higher multiplex capacity) and a much more effective data compression – High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) /H.265. DVB-T enables sending approx. 24.88 Mbps in one 8 MHz channel, while DVB-T2 can extend this value to 40 Mbps. On the consumer side, the most important limitation of the DVB-T standard is the inability to get terrestrial television channels in a resolution higher than HD (720p) or Full HD (1080p). The use of the much more effective compression standard will allow the transmission of more TV channels in one multiplex, it will also be possible to broadcast channels in 4K / Ultra HD image resolution.
How to choose a television for DVB-T/T2?
DVB-T2 transmission is carried out using image coding in accordance with the HEVC standard (also known as H.265 or MPEG-H part 2) . So, only televisions capable of decoding such a compressed signal are able to correctly receive the broadcast television programs. So, anyone intending to buy a new TV, should make sure that the TV set is capable of receiving content broadcast in the new format. Many commercially available TV sets are already equipped with a DVB-T2 decoder but can only decode an image encrypted according to the older video coding standard (AVC, also known as H.264 or MPEG-4 part 10). These TV sets, after the introduction of the DVB-T2/ HEVC transmission standard in any country will stop "recognizing" the broadcast content and will require to connect an external decoder.
When buying a new TV in Poland, make sure it has the ability to decode DVB-T2 signals with HEVC codec (also called H.265 or MPEG-H part 2). The new TV should process sound encoded in accordance with the E-AC-3. standard

Directional combo DVB-T antennas with changeable polarization (VHF+UHF)
The Yagi-Uda or Yagi antenna is one of the most popular antenna designs, due to a comparatively simple construction and high gain. Yagi-Uda antennas can operate in the HF to UHF bands (3 MHz to 3 GHz), but often within a limited bandwidth around the center frequency. In the case of DVB-T bands, the parameters are chosen so as to maintain the balance between the range of channels that can be received and the average gain within the frequency band. Another aspect is the polarization of the transmitted signals. The antenna elements (directors, dipole, reflector) have to operate in accordance with the polarization of the signals, otherwise the gain of the antenna would disappear. Usually, all transmitters in an area operate with the same polarization in one band (UHF or VHF), but the polarization of the broadcasts in the UHF and VHF bands can be different. Such a situation is in Poland, where the new MUX-8 is transmitted in the VHF band with vertical or horizontal polarization, depending on the area. The appropriate polarization of the receiving antenna is essential for the proper reception of the DVB-T broadcasts.
DIPOL is the first company that manufactures Professional VHF and UHF DVB-T Antenna Sets (H/V). Thanks to a universal construction, the VHF and UHF antenna segments can be independently set to the vertical (V) or horizontal (H) polarization of the received signals. We offer two versions specially designed for receiving DVB-T broadcasts with different polarizations in VHF and UHF bands: DIPOL 28/5-12/21-60 A2810 and DIPOL 28/5-12/21-60 DVB-T with LNA-177 amplifier, A2850. The both antenna sets are equipped with diplexers combining signals from the VHF and UHF bands.
View of the professional VHF and UHF DVB-T antenna set
(both segments operating with horizontal polarization)
View of the professional VHF and UHF DVB-T antenna set
(VHF segment operating with vertical and UHF with horizontal polarization)
In this configuration, the U-bolt has to be mounted at the end of the antenna carrier
The DIPOL 28/5-12/21-60 A2810 and A2850 professional DVB-T antenna sets have been designed for reception of TV broadcasts in VHF (174-230 MHz) and UHF (470-790 MHz) bands. They provide an effective solution for the reception of DVB-T broadcasts with various combinations of polarizations in the VHF and UHF bands.

What antenna for DVB-T/T2 (UHF band)?
Generally, DTT antenna systems do not force users to employ new types of antennas. Yagi-Uda arrays or even typical broadband antennas can receive digitally modulated signals. Of course, everything depends on the place of reception and the local signal propagation conditions.

Aside from UHF band, some countries may utilize VHF band (channels 6-12, 174-230 MHz).
Active DVB-T/T2 Antenna (ch. 5-12/21-60)
The active DVB-T antenna A6045 has been designed for reception of DVB-T channels both in VHF band (174-230 MHz) and in UHF band (470-790 MHz). The antenna can be used indoors or can be installed outdoors. The built-in low-noise high-gain amplifier with integrated LTE filter ensures very good performance of the device. Thanks to special construction, the antenna can receive signals with horizontal and vertical polarizations.
Professional VHF and UHF DVB-T/T2 Antenna Set (H/V): DIPOL 15/5-12/21-60
Professional VHF and UHF DVB-T Antenna Set (H/V): DIPOL 15/5-12/21-60 A1515 is designed to work outdoors. It provides very good results in receiving digital terrestrial television in areas with good and medium reception conditions (up to 20-30 km from transmitters). Thanks to a universal construction, the VHF and UHF antenna segments can be set to the vertical (V) or horizontal (H) polarization of the received signals.
Family of broadband antennas can be used in cities and outside them. The antennas are usually mounted on balconies or roofs. Without an amplifier (only with a balun) such an antenna can be sufficient at a distance up to 30 km from the transmitter, with an amplifier the reception distance can reach even 60 km.
UHF TV DVB-T/T2 Antenna: DIPOL 16/21-60 DVB-T
DIPOL 16/21-60 DVB-T ( A1610 ) and DIPOL 16/21-60 with LNA-177 amplifier ( A1615 ) are among the most popular DVB-T/T2 antennas in Europe. The directional antennas decrease the level of interference and unwanted signals and are easy to mount on any roof. The former model can be used at distances up to 40 km from the transmitter, the latter one within 30-60 km range.
UHF TV DVB-T/T2 antenna: DIPOL 19/21-60 DIGITAL
DIPOL 19/21-60 DVB-T A1911 is a very directional antenna decreasing the level of interference and unwanted signals, designed for mounting on roofs and recommended for distances up to 45 km from transmitters.
UHF TV DVB-T/T2 Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-69 Tri Digit w. amp
DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri Digit ( A2670 ) and DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri Digit with amplifier ( A2675 ) are advanced directional antennas decreasing the level of interference and unwanted signals, to be mounted on roofs, with reception range up to 60/120 km, respectively.
What antenna for DVB-T/T2 (VHF band)?
Antennas for VHF band (174-230 MHz) used for DTT are identical with that used for reception of digital DAB+ radio. However, DVB-T/T2 signals in an area can be broadcast with different polarization (H/V) than the DAB+ signals. The universal construction of the offered VHF antennas allows for adjustment to any polarization.
Offered antennas for VHF band(174-230 MHz):
  Code Name Gain [dBi]
A0110 DIPOL-1/5-12 1
A0140 DIPOL-4/5-12 6
Combining FM, DAB+, DVB-T/T2 signals
The variety of the received signals (FM, DAB/DAB+, DVB-T/T2 (VHF band), DVB-T/T2 (UHF band)) can be combined by antenna multiplexers (combiners) with the suitable band inputs.
  Code Name Combined signals
C0342 C0342 ZA-204Ms FM, DAB+/DVB-T(VHF), DVB-T(UHF)
C0370 ZA-11Ms FM, DVB-T(UHF), DVB-T(UHF)
C0384 C0384 ZA-206Ms FM, DVB-T(UHF)
R902044 MM-407 FM, DAB+/DVB-T(VHF), DVB-T(UHF), DVB-T(UHF)
R82018 R82018 DC015L VHFI/II+FM,


Measurement of digital terrestrial TV signals
The WS-6975 R10514 meter measures terrestrial DVB-T/DVB-T2 (HD) signals. The functions of the meter are clearly presented on a color TFT LCD display. The meter is ideal for the setup of every DVB-T/DVB-T2 antenna system. The applications include positioning of terrestrial antennas, tuning of filters, adjustment of amplifiers, maintenance and troubleshooting. The device allows the user to measure such parameters as signal level expressed in dBμV, C/N ratio, BER (Bit Error Rate) and MER (Modulation Error Ratio) that is very important for the assessment of the quality and reliability of the reception of digitally modulated signals. Thanks to the built-in receiver, the user can monitor the currently tested channel. The monitoring of the tested channels and intuitive operation accelerate installation work.

DVB-T/T2 Meter: Signal WS-6975 (H.265/H.264, built-in receiver)
DVB-T/T2 meter with built-in receiver: Signal WS-6975
(H.265/H.264 R10514

Home DVB-T antenna systems
Antenna system for reception of DVB-T/T2 broadcasts in UHF and VHF bands

Antenna system for areas
with high signal intensity (up to 20 km
from high- and medium-power DVB-T/T2 transmitters)
Antenna system for areas within a 20-40 km
distance from the transmitter,
with signal distribution to 4 televisions
Antenna system for areas over 40 km
away from the transmitter,
with signal distribution to 4 televisions
Antenna system for receiving
DVB-T/T2 broadcasts from two transmitters
Antenna system combining satellite
and DVB-T/T2 signals, with distribution to 4 outlets