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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 2/2014 (Jan. 13, 2014)
SmartLight - no bills for lighting? Researchers from the University of Cincinnati, Anton Harfmann and Jason Heikenfeld, have developed a revolutionary way to use solar energy for illumination of building interiors. The SmartLight was presented at CasaClima international energy forum in Italy at the end of 2013. The solution is completely different from the currently used techniques based on photovoltaic panels converting sunlight into electricity. SmartLight directs the sunlight along specified routes providing all rooms with natural light. The heart of the system are small electrofluidic cells, with a diameter of a few millimeters, filled with a substance that allows to change the behavior of the elements - they can focus, refract or reflect light at least as effectively as those made of glass. Modifying the surface tension of the liquid in the cells, the researches can change their shape from prisms to lenses and control the sunlight that passes through them. The energy needed for the control is 10000 ... 100000 times lower than consumed by traditional incandescent bulbs, and is generated by the embedded photovoltaic components. The savings can be huge!
The idea of SmartLight
The new technology may be a breakthrough and cause changes not only in the design of building installations, but also in the use of energy from the Sun. Additionally, SmartLight systems can be controlled wirelessly via applications available on mobile devices. But what about lighting at night? - It's not a problem, the excess energy from the solar system can be converted into electrical form, stored and used it the same way as in the case of photovoltaics. So far, the authors of the concept do not mention about the implementation costs in new or existing buildings, but the benefits seem so obvious that the systems should be cost-effective even today. We should only wait for news about first commercial applications of SmartLight.
The global demand for energy is constantly increasing. Currently, it is almost twice as much as it was 30 years ago, and the International Energy Agency predicts that by 2030 the demand will grow by 50 percent.
Light is the most widely used form of energy. On average, half of the price for electrical lighting, similarly to other uses of electrical energy, is the distribution cost. Scientists are working hard both on new ways of producing energy and its efficient and low-cost storage. Still, most energy comes from fossil fuels and is a source of CO2 emission increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. An alternative can be local energy production with the use of photovoltaic cells. Currently, they are widely used, especially in sunny regions of the world, and supply power to various devices that can work autonomously, and are also the sources of energy in solar power stations. Like any technology, photovoltaics has its advantages and disadvantages. One of the drawbacks is the relatively high energy requirement of the production process of photovoltaic cells and the associated impact on the environment. The costs of photovoltaic systems still having limited effectiveness are also high, so the continuing research on the improvement of conversion efficiency in solar cells and on other technologies is not surprising.

Optical attenuators - application tips. Optical attenuators are passive elements of optical paths having the task to reduce signal levels to values acceptable for receivers. They are not used in systems with multimode fibers where the signal levels are comparatively low. The attenuators are necessary in the case of short links based on single-mode fibers and equipment.
Optical Attenuator ULTIMODE T-15 (SC, 5 dB)
Optical Attenuator T-15L (LC, 5dB) - CLEARANCE SALE!
Optical Attenuator (FC, 5dB)
5 dB attenuator (SC)
5 dB attenuator (LC)
5 dB attenuator (FC)
To determine whether in a particular case one should use attenuators, it is necessary to check the optical power budget. The information needed for this purpose includes the output power of the transmitter and the sensitivity of the receiver, as well as the attenuation of the optical path between them. This way, the expected values of attenuation can be determined in advance, on the designing stage. The principles and sample calculations in this field are presented in the article Optical power budget in a fiber-optic communication link. However, the actual attenuation of the optical path should be measured after installation using a stable light source and a professional optical power meter.
Diagram showing the use of attenuators (X, red) in a communication link with two media converters

Attenuators should always be installed at the receivers' inputs. The first reason is convenience - it is better to measure the actual signal level at the input of the receiver and adjust the attenuation to the desired level. The second reason is the fact that each attenuator reflects some part of the incoming signal. This part will be additionally attenuated by the link, before returning to the transmitter.
Hybrid SMATV system for 8 receivers. A large distance between the satellite dish and multiswitch may cause problems with insufficient signal levels at the inputs of sat receivers. For example, using a 90 cm dish and TRISET-113 cable, the length of the cable connections should not be longer than 80 meters. In situations where the distance is longer (due to terrain conditions or distribution of the signals to another building), the best solution is to use dedicated fiber optic distribution systems allowing for transmission of TV signals even over several kilometers without a need for regeneration.
The photos below show optical-copper multiswitch system for two satellites installed ​​by Kolnet company, based on Comsat equipment and Signal MP-0908 R6944808 multiswitch.
In order to receive DVB-S/S2 signals from two satellites, the system employs two satellite optical LNBs, Opto-LNBF A9885. The LNBs have FC/PC connectors and operate in the second transmission window at a wavelength of 1310 nm. The optical signal from each LNB is transmitted via a single mode fiber to SAT-IF Optical Receiver/Converter Opto-QUATRO A9886, changing the transmission medium to copper coaxial cables. The devices convert the signals into typical for multiswitch systems four polarization/band pairs (VL–HL–VH–HH), identical with those coming from regular Quatro LNBs. The signals are distributed to subscriber outlets via the Signal MP-0908 R6944808 multiswitch and coaxial cables.
Operating and half-power angles of IR illuminators. Half-power angle is the angle within which radiation intensity of the beam does not fall 3 dB below the maximum value. The smaller the half power angle, the higher concentration of the beam. Operating angle is larger, in the case of Redbeam illuminators equipped with lenses it is about twice as wide as the half power angle.
Basic specs of Readbeam illuminators:
Wavelength [nm]850850850940940
Operating angle [o]10060304530
Half-power angle [o]5030152215
Intercom function in Hikvision DVRs. Hikvision DS-7604NI-SE K2204 is a modern IP network video recorder capable of monitoring, recording and playing back images from 4 MP IP cameras at frame rates up to 25 fps from each camera. This standalone NVR with VGA and HDMI outputs can be directly connected to a monitor, without a need for an additional computer. If the monitor has built-in speakers, or when an audio system is connected to the NVR instead, any of the IP cameras with audio capability or a client station can be used for communication with the operator of the video surveillance system.
19IP NVR Hikvision DS-7604NI-SEOutdoor IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPR54/12DN/V (CMOS 1080p, ONVIF)Gigabit Switch TP-LINK TL-SG108 (8xGE)2MP IP Dome Camera: Sunell SN-IPV54/12UDR (Aptina 1080p CMOS, ONVIF, OUTDOOR vandal-proof)
The use of intercom function in an IP CCTV system
The video from the IP cameras plus bidirectional audio information is transmitted according to IP protocol as a data stream, thus it can be easily distributed e.g. between buildings (in LAN network) or over longer distances (on the Internet). The intercom functionality can be used by operators for convenient voice communication, for rapid response in the case of incidents etc.
TP-LINK wireless router as a DLNA server. Many televisions available on the market are equipped with LAN ports that can be connected to Ethernet networks to cooperate with other DLNA certified devices. DLNA stands for the Digital Living Network Alliance, a non-profit collaborative trade organization gathering hundreds of member companies operating in the fields of consumer electronics, computer equipment, mobile devices. The home network devices compatible with DLNA include PCs and network attached storage (NAS) devices, TVs, stereos, home theaters, audio/video receivers, video displays, game consoles, tablets, PDAs, network printers, smartphones etc. Depending on the software installed, any of the devices can provide remote access to multimedia content.

The application of a home computer as the DLNA server is rather impractical and uneconomical.
The best solution is if the DLNA server works on a continuous basis, so that the digital photos, music and videos can be played at any time on the TV(s) or other digital media players. A good choice is the application of TP-LINK TL-WDR4300 N3260 router running OpenWRT software (installed instead of the firmware). A hard drive connected to a USB port of the router should be used as the storage (NAS server) for video, pictures, music, etc. The transmission of the data between the server and TV or other devices can be performed with the use of wired or wireless connections.

Dual-band Wireless Router: TP-LINK TL-WDR4300 (2.4&5GHz)Access Point TP-Link TL-WA901ND (2.4GHz, 802.11n, 300Mb/s)
The application of TP-LINK N3260 wireless router as a DLNA server.
The TP-Link TL-WA901ND N2944 access point connected to the TV enables wireless transmission.
Many TV manufactures provide dedicated wireless network adapters.
New products offered by DIPOL
RouterBoard RB2011UAS-RM (600MHz 128MB, 5x1000Mbps, 5x100Mbps, SFP, LCD)
RouterBoard RB2011UAS-RM N242011 runs RouterOS Level 5 system. This 5-port Gigabit Ethernet and 5-port Fast Ethernet router is equipped with 600 MHz processor and 128 MB RAM. The hardware and MikroTik system based on Linux are designed to create advanced professional networks based on static or dynamic routing. With advanced firewall features and queuing, it is easy to manage Internet bandwidth.
SIGNAL server RACK cabinet R9120165 has perforated front and rear doors to cool the devices mounted inside from external air conditioning units. The distances between pairs of rails located on both sides of the cabinet can be adjusted in increments of 1 cm, which simplifies installation of servers and similar devices.
Pole/Post Clamp MH-625 (Ø max 105mm, black)
Pole/Post Clamp MH-625 M5174 allows for mounting one or two camera brackets (on both sides) on a pole/post with diameter up to 105 mm.
The latest:
January 10, 2014 - SatNet 3.0 - new version of the software for designing SMATV systems. Anyone can download from our website the new version of SatNet application for designing multiswitch systems based on TERRA equipment. This program is used by designers and installers of antenna systems around the world. The new version enables the user to:
  • design systems with the latest multiswitches, amplifiers and passive components of the new net5 series
  • design "mixed" systems with the older and new versions of Terra equipment, which is especially useful in the case of expansion of existing systems
  • use a new method of selecting the equipment for the systems - catalog lists of devices based on production series allow for much faster and easier designing process
  • "break" the signal bus - for greater flexibility in obtaining the diagram of the network
Designing SMATV systems with SatNet software from TERRA
Click on the picture to go to the article and download the SatNet3.0 app
Worth reading
MMH-3000 universal headend - example of application. TERRA MMH-3000 headend is the optimal solution dedicated for facilities and institutions requiring central management of the content distributed in the system. No need for additional devices (satellite receivers or other STBs) makes it particularly attractive for hotels, motels, hospitals etc. The modular design of the TERRA MMH-3000 headend allows for a wide range of input and output signals. The output signals may include analog PAL channels suitable for older televisions, DVB-T multiplexes, or the both types of signals simultaneously... more
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